Polypeptide hormones vs steroid hormones

Hexarelin, Ipamorelin, GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 belong to a class of Growth Hormone secretagogues known as Ghrelin mimetic or GHRP. Compared to Growth Hormone Releasing Hormones (such as Sermorelin, Modified GRF 1-29, and CJC-1295), which are a separate class of growth hormone secretagogues, Ghrelin mimetic primarily increase GH release in the somatotrophs within the pituitary. Studies have shown that Ghrelin mimetics have shown that they release more GHRH compared to GHRH. On the other hand, GHRH slightly increases somatotrophin output as more somatotrophs help stimulate the release growth hormone. Also, GHRH is often used along with GHRP because when GHRH is used alone, it will only be effective when somatostatin is low. GHRP can however be used alone because it is able to create a larger pulse of growth hormone on its own.

Simvastatin is contraindicated for use during pregnancy, because of the potential effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on cholesterol pathways. Cholesterol and other products of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway are essential components for fetal development, including synthesis of steroids and cell membranes. Treatment should be immediately discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized. If a patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, discontinue simvastatin immediately and inform the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus. In a prospective review of about 100 pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or another structurally related HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, the incidence of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. However, atherosclerosis is a chronic process and the discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on the outcome of long-term therapy of primary hypercholesterolemia. Simvastatin should only be administered to females of child-bearing potential, including female adolescents at least 1 year post-menarche, when such patients are highly unlikely to conceive and have been informed of the potential hazards. Contraception requirements are advised; females of child-bearing potential should be counseled regarding appropriate methods of contraception while receiving simvastatin.

The secretion of hypothalamic, pituitary, and target tissue hormones is under tight regulatory control by a series of feedback and feed- forward loops. This complexity can be demonstrated using the growth hormone (GH) regulatory system as an example. The stimulatory substance growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and the inhibitory substance somatostatin (SS) both products of the hypothalamus, control pituitary GH secretion. Somatostatin is also called growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH). Under the influence of GHRH, growth hormone is released into the systemic circulation, causing the target tissue to secrete insulin-like growth factor-1, IGF-1. Growth hormone also has other more direct metabolic effects; it is both hyperglycemic and lipolytic. The principal source of systemic IGF-1 is the liver, although most other tissues secrete and contribute to systemic IGF-1. Liver IGF-1 is considered to be the principal regulator of tissue growth. In particular, the IGF-1 secreted by the liver is believed to synchronize growth throughout the body, resulting in a homeostatic balance of tissue size and mass. IGF-1 secreted by peripheral tissues is generally considered to be autocrine or paracrine in its biological action.

Most lipid hormones are derived from cholesterol, so they are structurally similar to it. The primary class of lipid hormones in humans is the steroid hormones. Chemically, these hormones are usually ketones or alcohols; their chemical names will end in “-ol” for alcohols or “-one” for ketones. Examples of steroid hormones include estradiol, which is an estrogen, or female sex hormone, and testosterone, which is an androgen, or male sex hormone. These two hormones are released by the female and male reproductive organs, respectively. Other steroid hormones include aldosterone and cortisol, which are released by the adrenal glands along with some other types of androgens. Steroid hormones are insoluble in water; they are carried by transport proteins in blood. As a result, they remain in circulation longer than peptide hormones. For example, cortisol has a half-life of 60 to 90 minutes, whereas epinephrine, an amino acid derived-hormone, has a half-life of approximately one minute.

Polypeptide hormones vs steroid hormones

polypeptide hormones vs steroid hormones

Most lipid hormones are derived from cholesterol, so they are structurally similar to it. The primary class of lipid hormones in humans is the steroid hormones. Chemically, these hormones are usually ketones or alcohols; their chemical names will end in “-ol” for alcohols or “-one” for ketones. Examples of steroid hormones include estradiol, which is an estrogen, or female sex hormone, and testosterone, which is an androgen, or male sex hormone. These two hormones are released by the female and male reproductive organs, respectively. Other steroid hormones include aldosterone and cortisol, which are released by the adrenal glands along with some other types of androgens. Steroid hormones are insoluble in water; they are carried by transport proteins in blood. As a result, they remain in circulation longer than peptide hormones. For example, cortisol has a half-life of 60 to 90 minutes, whereas epinephrine, an amino acid derived-hormone, has a half-life of approximately one minute.

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