Inhibition of 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity

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Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 are upregulated in various models of muscle atrophy and are considered to serve as reliable markers of muscular atrophy [17] , [18] , [19] . An increased expression of Atogin-1 and MuRF-1 strongly indicates an enhanced proteolysis via the UPS, and several studies demonstrated that glucocorticoids induce muscle proteolysis via Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 [12] , [13] , [14] , [17] . This is supported by our results showing glucocorticoid-induced increases of proteolysis and atrophy signaling. In addition to existing data our results demonstrate that glucocorticoid-dependent effects are partially pre-receptor controlled by 11beta-HSD1. A limitation of our study is the use of carbenoxolone as a pharmacological 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor. Although carbenoxolone is an established inhibitor of 11beta-HSD1 and we achieved a near-complete inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 activity in our experiments, we cannot entirely exclude unspecific effects. Clearly, the confirmation of our results in animal experiments . using mice with myocyte-specific 11beta-HSD1 knock-out would be highly desirable. Vice versa, a specific strength of our study is the confirmation of those results in human myotubes, pointing towards a physiological relevance of the findings in humans.

Properties
• Antiophthalmic, emollient, emetic, stimulant, diuretic, antiperiodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, alterative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, sedative, analgesic, hypotensive, febrifuge.

C onstituents
• Study of chemical constituents in fruits isolated nine compounds: imperatorin, isoimperatorin, crocetin, 5-hydroxy-7,3',4',5'-tetrainethoxyflavone, 2-methyl-3,5-dihydroxychromone, sudan III, geniposide, crocin and crocin-3. ( 8 )
• Chemical components include iridoid, iridoid glucosides, triterpenoids, organic acids, and volatile compounds. Major volatile compounds in essential oil of G. jasminoides are aliphatic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, alcohols and aromatic derivatives. Major bioactive compounds are geniposide, genipin, gardenoside, crocin, and iridoid. ( 44 )
• Fruit contains a coloring matter, gardenin, identical to crocin .
• Resinous exudation of the fruit yield two resins: gardenin, a crystalline resin of golden-yellow color, and another resin that is soft and of greenish color that acts as antiperiodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, alterative, and antispasmodic.
• Flower yields styrolyl-acetate and linalol, and other substances. The scent is attributed more to styrolyl-acetate than to the other fragrant components.
• Study for chemical components yielded 10 compounds: syringic acid (1), syringaldehyde (2), vanillic acid (3), 3-hydroxy-vanillic acid (4), 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy-phenol (5), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-phenol (6), 4-methoxy-benzaldehyde (7), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-chromone (8), crocin-1 (9), crocin-2 (10). ( 33 )
• Study isolated crocin (1), gentiobiosyl glucosyl crocetin (3), and mono-gentiobiosyl crocetin (4) from the fruit of Gj, and crocetin (2) from the processed fruit of Gj. (see study below) ( 34 )
• Study of flowers isolated 15 compounds identified as: 5, 7, 3'-trihydroxy-6, 4', 5'-trimethoxyflavone (1), 5, 7, 3', 5'- tetrahydroxy-6, 4'-dymethoxyflavone (2), kaempferol (3), quercetin (4), 3beta,23- dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 3beta,19alpha-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 3beta,19alpha,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), emodin (8), physcion (9), crocin-I (10), beta-daucosterol (11), beta-sitosterol (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), oleic acid (15). ( 37 )

Inhibition of aldosterone synthase is currently being investigated as a medical treatment for hypertension , heart failure , and renal disorders . [14] Deactivation of enzymatic activity reduces aldosterone concentrations in plasma and tissues which decreases mineralocorticoid receptor -dependent and independent effects in cardiac vascular and renal target organs. [14] Inhibition has shown to decrease plasma and urinary aldosterone concentrations by 70 - 80%, rapid hypokalaemia correction, moderate decrease of blood pressure, and an increase plasma renin activity in patients who are on a low-sodium diet. [14] Ongoing medical research is focusing on the synthesis of second-generation aldosterone synthase inhibitors to create an ideally selective inhibitor as the current, orally delivered, LCl699 has shown to be non-specific to aldosterone synthase. [14]

Inhibition of 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity

inhibition of 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity

Inhibition of aldosterone synthase is currently being investigated as a medical treatment for hypertension , heart failure , and renal disorders . [14] Deactivation of enzymatic activity reduces aldosterone concentrations in plasma and tissues which decreases mineralocorticoid receptor -dependent and independent effects in cardiac vascular and renal target organs. [14] Inhibition has shown to decrease plasma and urinary aldosterone concentrations by 70 - 80%, rapid hypokalaemia correction, moderate decrease of blood pressure, and an increase plasma renin activity in patients who are on a low-sodium diet. [14] Ongoing medical research is focusing on the synthesis of second-generation aldosterone synthase inhibitors to create an ideally selective inhibitor as the current, orally delivered, LCl699 has shown to be non-specific to aldosterone synthase. [14]

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