Bronchitis steroids treatment

Adapted from references 1, 3, 9, 10, 12-18, 21.

In April 2014, the FDA also approved umeclidinium inhalation powder (Incruse Ellipta, GlaxoSmithKline), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist monotherapy, a type of bronchodilator also known as a long-acting anticholinergic. 20 It is indicated for the long-term, once-daily maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. 20 It is available as a powder for inhalation via a plastic inhaler. 20 The most commonly reported adverse effects include cough, arthralgia, upper respiratory tract infection, and nasopharyngitis. 20

For the majority of cases, the initial treatment is simple to prescribe but frequently ignored or rejected by the patient – stop smoking cigarettes and avoid second-hand tobacco smoke. People should be encouraged in every way to cease smoking, as continuation will only cause further lung damage. Similarly, blocking or removing other underlying causes of repeated bronchial irritation (for example, exposure to chemical fumes) is a treatment goal. Half of patients with chronic bronchitis who smoke will no longer cough after 1 month of smoking cessation .

Chronic bronchitis has a % to 22% prevalence rate among the general population. Individuals over the age of 45, smokers, those that live in areas with high air pollution and those that have asthma have a higher risk of developing chronic bronchitis. [41] This wide range is due to the different definitions of chronic bronchitis which can be defined based on signs and symptoms or the clinical diagnosis of the disorder. Chronic bronchitis tends to affect men more often than women. While the primary risk factor for chronic bronchitis is smoking, there is still a 4%-22% chance that people with chronic bronchitis were never smokers. This might suggest other risk factors such as the inhalation of fuels, dusts, and fumes. [42] Obesity has also been linked to an increased risk in the onset of chronic bronchitis. In the United States in the year 2014 per 100,000 population the death rate of chronic bronchitis was . [43]

Bronchitis steroids treatment

bronchitis steroids treatment

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