Biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) is a lipid transmitter synthesized and released "on demand" by neurons in the brain. Anandamide is also generated by macrophages where its endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis has been implicated in the hypotension of septic shock and advanced liver cirrhosis. Anandamide can be generated from its membrane precursor, N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) through cleavage by a phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD). Here we document a biosynthetic pathway for anandamide in mouse brain and macrophages that involves the phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed cleavage of NAPE to generate a lipid, phosphoanandamide, which is subsequently dephosphorylated by phosphatases, including PTPN22, previously described as a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Bacterial endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis of anandamide in macrophages is mediated exclusively by the PLC/phosphatase pathway, which is up-regulated by LPS, whereas NAPE-PLD is down-regulated by LPS and functions as a salvage pathway of anandamide synthesis when the PLC/phosphatase pathway is compromised. Both PTPN22 and endocannabinoids have been implicated in autoimmune diseases, suggesting that the PLC/phosphatase pathway of anandamide synthesis may be a pharmacotherapeutic target.

In bacteria, the enzyme glutamate 5-kinase initiates the biosynthesis of proline by transferring a phosphate group from ATP onto glutamate. The next reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), which catalyzes the reduction of the ϒ-carboxyl group of L-glutamate 5-phosphate. This results in the formation of glutamate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to pyrroline-5-carboxylate. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate is further reduced by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) to yield a proline amino acid. [28]

Polyketides are structurally a very diverse family of natural products with diverse biological activities and pharmacological properties. [3] They are broadly divided into three classes: type I polyketides (often macrolides produced by multimodular megasynthases ), type II polyketides (often aromatic molecules produced by the iterative action of dissociated enzymes ), and type III polyketides (often small aromatic molecules produced by fungal species). Polyketide antibiotics , antifungals , cytostatics , anticholesteremic , antiparasitics , coccidiostats , animal growth promoters and natural insecticides are in commercial use. [ citation needed ]

Biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

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biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroidsbiosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroidsbiosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroidsbiosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroidsbiosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

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