Bell's palsy is one type of facial nerve paralysis. The 7th cranial nerve controls the muscles of the face, and although scientists do not know the exact cause of Bell's palsy, they think it may be due to nerve damage from an infection, for example, the flu, common cold viruses, and more serious infections like meningitis. The symptoms of Bell's palsy vary from person to person, but can include:
In addition to enhancement of walking abilities in SCI patients, other clinical applications of FES include diaphragmatic/phrenic pacing, and spasticity control. Functional electrical stimulation has had some success in improving ventilatory function in adult patients with SCI (Glenn et al, 1984; Carter et al, 1987; Glenn et al, 1988). Hunt et al (1988) reported that diaphragmatic pacing is also helpful for infants and children who need ventilatory support. Furthermore, in a 1992 review on the rehabilitation of children with SCI, Flett (1992) stated that diaphragmatic/phrenic pacing is indicated for children with quadriplegia at C3 or higher if they have viable phrenic nerves and adequate diaphragm and lung function. Candidates for diaphragmatic pacing should be stable and out of the acute phase of injury. The author stated that this approach of assisting ventilation in these patients resulted in psychological benefits to both the children and their families. Currently, bilateral stimulation at low frequency is more frequently used instead of stimulation of only one hemidiaphragm at a time, and adequate ventilation can be attained with 5 to 9 stimuli per minute.
Surveillance of JE vaccine related complications in Japan from 1965 to 1973 disclosed neurologic events (primarily encephalitis , encephalopathy, seizures, and peripheral neuropathy ) in 1 to per million vaccinees. 16,17 Very rarely, deaths occurred with vaccine-associated encephalitis. Between 1987 and 1989, two cases of neurologic dysfunction were reported from Japan; one of these was a transverse myelitis , while the second included seizures, cranial nerve paresis, cerebellar ataxia, and behavior disorder. 17 In 1992, two cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were reported from Japan; one occurred 14 days after the second dose and the second occurred 17 days after a booster dose of JE vaccine. Both cases recovered. 18 One case of Bell's Palsy was reported from Thailand.