The Telekom Affair – In May 2007, several former riders admitted to using banned substances (including EPO ) while riding for the team in the mid-1990s, including Erik Zabel , Rolf Aldag , Brian Holm ,  Bjarne Riis ,  Bert Dietz , Udo Bölts and Christian Henn including the seasons in which Riis and Jan Ullrich won the Tour de France.  Team doctors Andreas Schmid and Lothar Heinrich also confessed to participating and administering banned substances. The latter was Team Telekom's sporting director until 3 May 2007, when he was suspended following allegations published in former team member Jef d'Hont 's book. 
During the metabolism of alcohol via the respective dehydrogenases, NAD ( nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ) is converted into reduced NAD. Normally, NAD is used to metabolize fats in the liver, and as such alcohol competes with these fats for the use of NAD. Prolonged exposure to alcohol means that fats accumulate in the liver, leading to the term 'fatty liver'. Continued consumption (such as in alcoholism) then leads to cell death in the hepatocytes as the fat stores reduce the function of the cell to the point of death. These cells are then replaced with scar tissue, leading to the condition called cirrhosis .
Electron Microscopy of Pancreatic Islets. Bencosme and . Pease. Endocrinology, 63: 1, 1958 Pancreatic islets have been studied by the electron microscopy of ultrathin sections mature guinea pigs anti cats. Alpha cells contain specific granules which are notably dense after fixation with osmium tetroxide. Their substance is homogeneous. They arc enclosed within a vacuolar membrane. Other organdies such as the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, RNA granules and mitochondria arc present inconspicuously, and without particular specialisation. Beta cells of the cat and guinea pig differ in important respects. In the cat the specific granules contain an angular crystalloid element. The homologous structure in the guinea pig is spherical. These granules are enclosed in membranous envelopes. The density of the granules is substantially less than those of alpha cells. PDF